Sepsis Infection Can Cause Septic Shock a Potentially Lethal Drop In Blood Pressure Due to the Presence of Bacteria In the Blood indicates Elder Abuse Lawyer Steven Peck
Sepsis refers to a bacterial infection in the bloodstream or body tissues. This is a very broad term covering the presence of many types of microscopic disease-causing organisms says Elder Abuse Lawyer Steven Peck. Sepsis is also called bacteremia. Closely related terms include septicemia and septic syndrome.
Sepsis can originate anywhere bacteria can gain entry to the body; common sites include the urinary tract, the liver and its bile ducts, the gastrointestinal tract, and the lungs. Broken or ulcerated skin (bed sores, pressure sores and decubitus ulcers) can also provide access to bacteria commonly present in the environment. Invasive medical procedures, including dental work, can introduce bacteria or permit it to accumulate. Entry points and equipment left in place for any length of time present a particular risk. Heart valve replacement, catheters, ostomy sites, intravenous(IV) or arterial lines, surgical wounds, or surgical drains are examples. IV drug users are at high risk as well.
The most common symptom of sepsis is fever, often accompanied by chills or shaking, or other flu-like symptoms. A history of any recent invasive procedure or dental work should raise the suspicion of sepsis and medical help should be sought.
The presence of sepsis is indicated by blood tests showing particularly high or low white blood cell counts. The causative agent is determined by blood culture.
Identifying the specific cause ultimately determines how sepsis is treated. However, time is of the essence, so a broad-spectrum antibiotic or multiple antibiotics will be administered until blood cultures reveal the culprit and treatment can be made specific to the organism. Intravenous antibiotic therapy is usually necessary and is administered in the hospital.
Septic shock is a potentially lethal drop in blood pressure due to the presence of bacteria in the blood.
Septic shock is a possible consequence of bacteremia, or bacteria in the bloodstream. Bacterial toxins, and the immune system response to them, cause a dramatic drop in blood pressure, preventing the delivery of blood to the organs. Septic shock can lead to multiple organ failure including respiratory failure, and may cause rapid death. Toxic shock syndrome is one type of septic shock.
During an infection, certain types of bacteria can produce and release complex molecules, called endotoxins, that may provoke a dramatic response by the body’s immune system. Released in the bloodstream, endotoxins are particularly dangerous, because they become widely dispersed and affect the blood vessels themselves. Arteries and the smaller arterioles open wider, increasing the total volume of the circulatory system. At the same time, the walls of the blood vessels become leaky, allowing fluid to seep out into the tissues, lowering the amount of fluid left in circulation. This combination of increased system volume and decreased fluid causes a dramatic decrease in blood pressure and reduces the blood flow to the organs. Other changes brought on by immune response may cause coagulation of the blood in the extremities, which can further decrease circulation through the organs.
Septic shock is seen most often in patients with suppressed immune systems, and is usually due to bacteria acquired during treatment at the hospital. The immune system is suppressed by drugs used to treat cancer, autoimmune disorders, organ transplants, and diseases of immune deficiency such as AIDS. Malnutrition, chronic drug abuse, and long-term illness increase the likelihood of succumbing to bacterial infection. Bacteremia is more likely with preexisting infections such as urinary or gastrointestinal tract infections, or bed sores, pressure sores and decubitus ulcers. Bacteria may be introduced to the blood stream by surgical procedures, catheters, or intravenous equipment.
Septic shock is usually preceded by bacteremia, which is marked by fever, malaise, chills, and nausea. The first sign of shock is often confusion and decreased consciousness. In this beginning stage, the extremities are usually warm. Later, they become cool, pale, and bluish. Fever may give way to lower that normal temperatures later on in sepsis.
Other symptoms include:
?Shallow, rapid breathing
?Reddish patches in the skin.
Septic shock may progress to cause “adult respiratory distress syndrome,” in which fluid collects in the lungs, and breathing becomes very shallow and labored. This condition may lead to ventilatory collapse, in which the patient can no longer breathe adequately without assistance.
Diagnosis of septic shock is made by measuring blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration rate, as well as by a consideration of possible sources of infection. Blood pressure may be monitored with a catheter device inserted into the pulmonary artery supplying the lungs. Blood cultures are done to determine the type of bacteria responsible. The levels of oxygen,carbon dioxide, and acidity in the blood are also monitored to assess changes in respiratory function.
Septic shock is treated initially with a combination of antibiotics and fluid replacement. The antibiotic is chosen based on the bacteria present, although two or more types of antibiotics may be used initially until the organism is identified. Intravenous fluids, either blood or protein solutions, replacethe fluid lost by leakage. Coagulation and hemorrhage may be treated with transfusions of plasma or platelets. Dopamine may be given to increase blood pressure further if necessary.
Respiratory distress is treated with mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen, either using a nosepiece or a tube into the trachea through the throat.
Identification and treatment of the primary infection site is important to prevent ongoing proliferation of bacteria.
Septic shock is most likely to develop in the hospital, since it follows infections which are likely to be the objects of treatment. Because of this, careful monitoring and early, aggressive therapy can minimize the likelihood of progression. Nonetheless, death occurs in at least 25% of all cases.
The likelihood of recovery from septic shock depends on may factors, including the degree of immuno suppression of the patient, underlying disease, promptness of treatment, and type of bacteria responsible. Mortality is highest in the very young and the elderly, those with persistent or recurrent infection,and those with compromised immune systems.
The risk of developing septic shock can be minimized through treatment of underlying bacterial infections, and prompt attention to signs of bacteremia.
On the verge of Week 16 championship games, I spent a lot of time this week thinking about midrange and low-end players that can complement a starting lineup or even fill in if you are desperate. Here is my 10-player starting lineup of potentially sneaky Week 16 plays: QB: Kyle Orton, Kansas City Chiefs Orton [...]
Number of nursing homes in Hawaii: 48
Patients living in Hawaii nursing homes: 3,871
Occupancy rates of Hawaii nursing homes: 93.0%
Average number of deficiencies at each Hawaii nursing home: 10.7
Percent of Hawaii nursing homes with serious deficiencies for actual harm to patient: 10.4%
Most common deficiencies at Hawaii nursing homes: Infection Control, Food Sanitation, Quality of Care
Distribution of ownership of Hawaii nursing homes:50% for profit, 29% non profit, 21% government
Most populated cities in Hawaii: Honolulu, Hilo, Kailua, Kaneohe, Kapolei
Staffing levels at Hawaii nursing homes (daily hours): Above average, 3.9total staff, 1.3 licensed nurse
**Data based upon 2009 CMS data, U.S. Department of Health and Human Service
Protracted wound healing due to pro-inflammatory condition: An instance of antagonistic pleiotropy theory – Corrected Proof
Inflammation, triggered by hazardous stimuli and agents like infection and tissue injury, is defined as a wide variety of adaptive physiological and pathological processes to avoid infection and repair damage, returning the organism to the normal state of homeostasis. It is well established that edema and inflammation can lead to a painful and delayed healing course. In addition, although inflammatory cells are intimately involved in the regulation and progression of normal adult wound healing, multiple lines of evidence suggest that reduction of one or more of the inflammatory cell types can actually have a positive outcome on the closure of wounds .
A couple of new developments on the C. difficile front should be encouraging news to anyone who is familiar with this potentially deadly bacterial infection. You might also know it as CDI, or Clostridium difficile infection.
First, scientists from UCLA and the University of Texas have been looking at possible cellular defense mechanisms against the two toxins that are released into the gut whenever C. difficile germs are growing in number. The scientists believe that human cells in the gut are capable of releasing molecules that will knock down these toxins, and that the cells can put up a fight through a drug-induced process called protein s-nitrosylation.
The process is seen as a much-needed new therapeutic approach toward an infection that often resists treatment with antibiotics. As of August 2011, the research team was ready to conduct clinical trials on humans, after successful trials on animals.
Second, the fight against C. difficile continues with at least three different research projects that show the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplants for those patients whose infections keep recurring. That’s right — fecal material is transplanted into the patient’s body, usually by colonoscopy or by an infusion into the rectum.
Though it may sound unpleasant, the evidence suggests it can quickly stop C. difficile-related diarrhea and may eventually prove useful in reversing inflammatory bowel disease. The introduction of healthy fecal bacteria can restore balance to a digestive system wracked by CDI, the experts said.
The majority of C. difficile infections occur in hospital or nursing home settings, often because of poor hygiene. Overuse of antibiotics poses another problem, as the body loses the strains of bacteria that could normally fend off C. difficile.
In the United States, hundreds of thousands of people acquire C. difficile infections each year, with fatalities numbering between 15,000 and 20,000, according to an April 14, 2009, article in The New York Times. The symptoms include moderate to severe diarrhea, fever, nausea, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and, in some cases, colitis.
Nursing Home Abuse and Neglect Laywer Steven Peck Comments On Bed Sores, Pressure Sores and Decubitus Ulcers
Mrs. W is an 80-year-old woman who was recently discharged from the hospital after treatment of a severe infection in her leg that took a very long time to heal. Her hospitalization was also complicated by facility-acquired Clostridium difficile infection. Because she was still frail, Mrs. W stayed with her daughter following discharge. One morning, her daughter found Mrs. W lying on the bathroom floor awake but nonresponsive and unable to move. Paramedics took Mrs. W to the emergency department of the nearest hospital, where it was determined that she had had a stroke. Mrs. W was admitted to the intensive care unit. On admission, nurses documented a bruise on her right trochanter that was assumed to have been caused by the fall . Eventually this bruise opened up into a full-thickness pressure ulcer.
Noting that Mrs. W was at high risk for a pressure ulcer, bed sores, and decubitus ulcers prevention interventions and skin protection were instituted immediately. Mrs. W was moderately obese and had diabetes, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. She also had evidence of poor peripheral perfusion, and her “tissue tolerance” was judged to be unusually low. These factors probably played a role in the rapid deterioration of Mrs. W’s bed sore, pressure sore and skin ulcer and the inability of the nursing staff to halt the progression of the injury despite prompt and diligent nursing care. However, Mrs. W’s family was angry about the pressure ulcer, blamed the nursing staff, and initiated a lawsuit against the nurses and the hospital.
With Christmas quickly approaching, it can be tempting to idealize nursing home visits – particularly if your loved one is suffering from dementia or Alzheimer’s. The nature of the diseases make family members want to believe their loved ones will be just a bit better.
Seeing things from the perspective of your loved one can help smooth the way to a more satisfying visit. Below, we’ve compiled eight holiday visit tips from Alzheimer’s Disease International, the Minnesota Health Department, the National Institute on Aging, and the Mayo Clinic.
- During your visit, use slow and gentle motions. Smile. Keep lots of eye contact. Try to go along with your loved one’s stories, rather than arguing or negating them.
- If possible, visit with someone else. Review the nursing home’s policy on pets and children – they can help brighten a loved one’s day.
- Keep in mind the important fact that people with Alzheimer’s and dementia thrive on routine. Carolers, unexpected parties, and having too many people around can cause stress. Keep visits low-key and uncrowded.
- If you take a loved one home, remember to keep his or her medications handy, and to accommodate for dietary restrictions. Often, people with Alzheimer’s and dementia have severe sugar and/or sodium restrictions.
- Once at home, try to engage your loved one in gentle, low-stress activities. Ideas might include baking cookies, stringing popcorn garlands, and creating photo albums.
- Make sure you’re ready in case of an emergency. Have the numbers of nearby hospitals, as well as your loved one’s primary caregivers at his or her nursing home.
- And finally, take time to care for yourself. Take a walk outside. Spend some time in a “quiet” room in the house. If you’re feeling extra stressed, talk things over with a trusted family member.
For the holiday season, the first thing that does not come to mind is buying scrubs. Let’s face it; scrubs just are not that exciting. You buy them, because you don’t have to. If you are looking for nursing scrubs on sale, you should consider going online to get them. You can get a great [...]